Paul serves the CIO role, focusing on the industrial internet of things (IoT) and cloud computing. His research explores how new technologies challenge established organizations and their business models. Cloud computing may not always save its adopters money, but cloud-based approaches consistently provide the flexibility and agility required to win, serve, and retain business in the age of the customer. Paul also looks at the way IoT is creating opportunities in sectors from healthcare and utilities to manufacturing and retail. At the simplest level, connected devices are used to track the use of expensive physical assets. But the opportunities are far larger than that, altering the ways in which machines are built, sold, used, and maintained, and transforming the relationship between makers, operators, and customers in ways that we are only just beginning to understand. Paul joined Forrester in 2015, having spent the previous six years as an independent analyst and founder of The Cloud of Data. His areas of focus included cloud computing and big data, with a particular emphasis on exploring the implications of integrating new approaches into existing business models and workflows. Paul worked with a variety of vendors, customer organizations, and public bodies. He was also a long-serving and active contributor to Gigaom Research’s Analyst Network. Prior to that, Paul was a member of the senior management team at a UK software company. He has also filled roles related to shaping public policy around the use of information technology, particularly in the culture and education sectors, culminating in a period as the first director of the UK’s Common Information Environment. This initiative was supported by organizations including the National Health Service, Jisc, the British Library, BBC, and others. Paul earned a Ph.D in archaeology from the University of York, in the UK.